WHAT IS NAD+
Scientists have now confirmed a direct link between falling NAD+ levels and aging in both animal and in human subjects.
Read more about NAD+
NAD+ DECLINES WITH AGE
As we age, our bodies produce less NAD+ and the communication between the Mitochondria and cell nucleus is impaired. (5,8,10).
Read more about NAD+
NAD+ METABOLISM IN HUMANS
NAD+ can be synthesized in humans from several different molecules (precursors), thru the De Novo and Salvage Pathways.
Nampt is the rate-limiting step in the salvage process (97).
NMN BYPASSES THE NAMPT BOTTLENECK
As we age, Nampt enzyme activity is lower, resulting in less NAM recycling, less NAD+, more disease and aging (97,101).
Restoring NAD+ in the Liver does not solve NAD+ deficiency throughout the body as NAD+ cannot readily pass through the cellular membrane.
Muscle tissue, for example, depends on cells internal recycling of NAD+ through the salvage pathway which is controlled by intercellular Nampt.
NMN IS QUICKLY METABOLIZED IN TISSUES THROUGHOUT THE BODY
Oral NMN supplements:
This 2016 study found NMN is rapidly metabolized to NAD+ in tissues throughout the body.
The red line in chart to right shows NMN quickly absorbed into blood circulation within 2–3 min, and then into tissues within 15 minutes.
The blue line shows NAD+ levels begin to increase significantly in tissue within 15 minutes.
This chart at left from the same study shows levels of a double labeled NAD+ in liver and soleus muscle at 10 and 30 minutes after oral administration of double labeled NMN.
This clearly shows the NMN makes its way through the liver and into muscle in 30 minutes.
NMN INCREASES NAD+ and SIRT1 DRAMATICALLY IN ORGANS
In this 2017 study, NMN supplementation for 4 days significantly elevated NAD+ and SIRT1, which protected the mice from Kidney damage.
NAD+ and SIRT1 levels were HIGHER in OLD Mice than in YOUNG Mice that did not receive NMN.
NMN VS NR (Niagen)
NR, NA, NMN and NAM ALL elevate levels of NAD+ significantly in the liver, which has many benefits for metabolic health.
This chart from the Trammell thesis shows the impact on liver NAD+ for mice given NR, NAM, and NA by oral gavage 0.25, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 hours before testing.
However, NAD+ in the Liver does not readily make its way to all cells in the body, as NAD+ is TOO LARGE to enter cells.
Unfortunately, NR is either broken down to NAM in the digestive system, or, converted to NAD+ in the liver. As a result, NR is not detectable in the bloodstream, which disadvantages its uptake in cells throughout the body.
Only NMN is readily available in the bloodstream to all tissues, and bypasses the Nampt bottleneck in the Salvage pathway
LONG TERM STUDY ON NMN
This 12 month long study designed to evaluate the long-term effects of oral supplementation of NMN in mice published in Oct 2016.
Mice were feed 100 or 300Mg/Kg of NMN per day by oral garage. The 100 Mg dosage showed more improvement in some metabolic parameters, which 300 Mg per kg a day was more effective at others.
Using the FDA guidelines on conversion, the 100 Mg dosage equates to 560 mg per day in a 70 kg human.
Both dosages showed:
- better glucose control
- increased energy
- less weight gain
- better mobility
- better overall health
- immune function
Below are some quotes from that study.
“NMN was able to mitigate most age-associated physiological declines in mice”
“treatment of old mice with NMN reversed all of these biochemical aspects of aging”
HUMAN STUDIES – LONG TERM SUPPLEMENTATION WITH NMN
There are 2 clinical trials of NMN in humans currently underway.
The first was started in late 2016 by Keio University School of Medicine in Tokyo (R).
The second was begun in the summer of 2017,by Washington University School of Medicine (R).
The Washington University study appears to be much larger and investigates more health parameters. In that study, participants are 50 healthy women between 55 and 70 years of age with slightly high blood glucose,BMI and triglyceride levels.
Using a dose of 2 capsules of 125mg NMN per day over a period of 8 weeks, researchers are testing for:
- change in insulin sensitivity
- change in beta-cell function
- works to control blood sugar
- blood vessels dilate
- effects of NMN on blood lipids
- effects of NMN on body fat
- markers of cardiovascular and metabolic health
According to the study:
“Data from studies conducted in rodents have shown that NMN supplementation has beneficial effects on cardiovascular and metabolic health, but this has not yet been studied in people”
Testing of metabolic parameters will continue for 2 years after supplementation has ended, so final results will not be published for some time yet, but preliminary results are expected to be announced in early 2018.
OTHER RESEARCH WITH NMN
NAD(+) levels were increased significantly both in muscle and liver by NMN
NMN-supplementation can induce similar reversal of the glucose intolerance
NMN intervention is likely to be increased catabolism of fats
NMN-supplementation does mimic exercise
This study showed supplementation with NMN was able to repair the DNA in cells damaged by radiation.
the cells of old mice were indistinguishable from young mice after just one week of treatment.”
Diabetes & Metabolic disease
NMN was immediately utilized and converted to NAD+ within 15 min, resulting in significant increases in NAD+ levels over 60 min
administering NMN, a key NAD+ intermediate, can be an effective intervention to treat the pathophysiology of diet- and age-induced T2D
Surprisingly, just one dose of NMN normalized impaired glucose tolerance
raising NAD+ levels in old mice restores mitochondrial function to that of a young mouse
treatment of old mice with NMN reversed all of these biochemical aspects of aging
restore the mitochondrial homeostasis and key biochemical markers of muscle health in a 22-month-old mouse to levels similar to a 6-month-old mouse
NMN significantly increased the level of NAD+ in the heart
NMN protected the heart from I/R injury
NMN reduces vascular oxidative stress
NMN treatment normalizes aortic stiffness in old mice
NMN represents a novel strategy for combating arterial aging
NMN can reduce myocardial inflammation
NMN thus can cut off the initial inflammatory signal, leading to reduced myocardial inflammation
Remarkably, NMN administered to FXN-KO mice restores cardiac function to near-normal levels.
restoration of cardiac function and energy metabolism upon NMN supplementation
remarkable decrease in whole-body EE and cardiac energy wasting
NMN treats brain injury in ICH by suppressing neuroinflammation/oxidative stress
NMN treatment protects against cICH-induced acute brain injury
NMN treatment reduces brain cell death and oxidative stress
These results further support the neuroprotection of NMN/NAD+
We now demonstrate that mitochondrial respiratory function was restored
NMN could restore cognition in AD model rats.
The beneficial effect of NMN is produced by ameliorating neuron survival, improving energy metabolism and reducing ROS accumulation.
These results suggest that NMN may become a promising therapeutic drug for AD
NMN Treatment Rescues Cognitive impairments
NMN Treatment Improves Inflammatory Responses
Supplementation with NMN restored kidney SIRT1 and NAD+ content in 20-month-old mice and protected both young and old mice from acute kidney injury.