Can NMN really reverse Aging? (backup)

As we age, our levels of the Co-enzyme Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide NAD+ drop significantly in multiple organs in mice and humans  (5,8,10).

NAD+ decrease is described as a trigger in age-associated decline(23), and perhaps even the key factor in why we age (5).

In 2013, research published by Dr David Sinclair demonstranted that short term supplementation with Nicotinamide MonoNucleotide (NMN) reversed many aspects of aging, making the cells of old mice resemble those of much younger mice, and greatly improving their health (8).


The quotes below are directly from that research:

NMN was able to mitigate most age-associated physiological declines in mice”

“treatment of old mice with NMN reversed all of these biochemical aspects of aging”

Since that landmark 2013 study, dozens of others have been published investigating the efficacy of supplementation with NMN in treatment and prevention of a wide range of disease including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, Alzheimers, Parkinsons, and more (5,6,7,9,10,11,13,14,15,16).

According to Dr Sinclair:

enhancing NAD+ biosynthesis by using NAD+ intermediates, such as NMN and NR, is expected to ameliorate age-associated physiological decline


NR benefits chartNAD+ is a key co-enzyme that the mitochondria in every cell of our bodies depend on to fuel all basic functions. (3,4)

NAD+ play a key role in communicating between our cells nucleus and the Mitochondria that power all activity in our cells (5,6,7)


NAD+ levels decreaseAs we age, our bodies produce less NAD+ and the communication between the Mitochondria and cell nucleus is impaired. (5,8,10).

Over time,  decreasing NAD+ impairs the cell’s ability to make energy, which leads to aging and disease (8, 5) and perhaps even the key factor in why we age (5).


NAD+ can be synthesized in humans from several different molecules (precursors), thru 2 distinct pathways:
De Novo Pathway

  • Tryptophan
  • Nicotinic Acid (NA)

Salvage Pathway

  • NAM – Nicotinamide
  • NR – Nicotinamide Riboside
  • NMN – Nicotinamide MonoNucleotide

The NAD+ supply is constantly being consumed and replenished through the Salvage Pathway, with approximately 3g of NAM metabolized to NMN and then to NAD 2-4 times per day (14).

  • The salvage pathway sustains 85% or more of our NAD+ (14)
  • Nampt is the rate-limiting step in the salvage process (97).
  • As we age, Nampt enzyme activity is lower, resulting in less NAM recycling, less NAD+, more disease and aging (97,101).


NAM, NA, NMN, NR, and Tryptophan ALL elevate levels of NAD+ significantly in the liver, which has many benefits for metabolic health.

This chart from the Trammell thesis shows the impact on liver NAD+ for mice given NR, NAM, and NA by oral gavage 0.25, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 hours before testing.

Charts showing NMN impact on NAD+ levels in the liver are below.

* Note:  These charts are somewhat deceptive. It shows NAM (green bar) elevated NAD+ nearly as much as NR (black bar)

However if they used equal mg of each supplement, which is how people actually purchase and use them, it would show NA about equal with NR and NAM far effective than NR at elevating NAD+ in the liver.

Mice in these experiments didn’t receive equal WEIGHTS of each precursor. Instead researchers chose to use quantity of molecules, which makes NR look “better” by comparison.

In this case, “185 mg kg−1 of NR or the mole equivalent doses of Nam and NA”(16).

Molecular weight for NR is 255 grams, NAM is 122 grams, and NA 123 grams.  So this chart used a ratio of  255 grams of NR to 122 and 123 grams of NAM and NA.


  • “NMN makes its way through the liver, into muscle, and is metabolized to NAD+ in 30 minutes” (R)


  • Is much slower, taking 8 hours to reach peak NAD+ in humans (R)


  • Has very similar NAD+ profile to NR, taking 8 hours to reach peak NAD+ in humans (R)
  • Has been shown to increase NAD+ level in liver (47%), but was weaker in kidney (2%), heart (20%), blood (43%) or lungs (17%) (R)

NA (Niacin)

  • Elevates NAD+ to peak levels in liver in 15 minutes (R)
  • raised NAD+ in liver (47%), and impressively raised kidney (88%), heart (62%), blood (43%) and lungs (11%) (R)


  • In the liver  tryptophan is the preferable substrate for NAD+ production (R)
  • Administration of tryptophan, NA, or NAM to rats showed that tryptophan resulted in the highest hepatic NAD+ concentrations(R)


Restoring NAD+ to youthful levels in ALL CELLS throughout the body is the goal.

However, many tissues cannot utilize NAD+ directly from the blood as NAD+ cannot readily pass through the cellular membrane.

Muscle tissue, for example, depends on cells internal recycling of NAD+ through the salvage pathway which is controlled by Nampt.

To restore depleted NAD+ levels in such cells, a precursor must:

  • Be available in the bloodstream
  • Once inside a cell, be able to bypass the Nampt bottleneck

NA and Tryptophan
NA and Tryptophan act through the De Novo pathway, which supplies a small percentage of our NAD+, primarily in the liver

NAM is abundant in the blood and easily carried into such cells throughout the body, but  depends on Nampt, which is the rate limiting enzyme in the salvage pathway.

When taken orally as a supplement, most NR does not make it through the digestive system intact, but is broken down to NAM (97,98,99).

For more info on how NR is converted to NAM in the body.

NR can bypass the Nampt bottleneck, but is not normally available in the bloodstream

After oral NMN supplementation, levels of NMN in the bloodstream are quickly elevated and remain high longer than NAM, NA, or NR (18,22,97,98,99)

Oral NMN supplements:

  • Make their way intact thru the digestive system (22)
  • Quickly elevates levels of NMN in the bloodstream for use throughout the body (22)
  • Quickly elevates levels of  NMN in tissues throughout the body (22)
  • Quickly raises levels of NAD+ in blood, liver and tissues  through the body (22,23)
  • Remain elevated longer than NAM, NA, or NR (18)

Only NMN is readily available in the bloodstream to all tissues, and bypasses the Nampt bottleneck in the Salvage pathway


The chart at right shows levels of a double labeled NAD+ (C13-d-nad+) in liver and soleus muscle at 10 and 30 minutes after oral administration of double labeled NMN.

This clearly shows that NMN makes it way through the liver intact, through the bloodstream, into muscle, and is metabolized to NAD+ in 30 minutes (22) .

This quote below is directly from that study.

Orally administered NMN is quickly absorbed, efficiently transported into blood circulation, and immediately converted to NAD+in major metabolic tissues (22).


In this 2016 study, mice were given a single dose of  NMN in water.

NMN  levels in blood showed it is quickly absorbed from the gut into blood circulation within 2–3 min and then cleared from blood circulation into tissues within 15 min





In this 2017 study, NMN supplementation for 4 days significantly elevated NAD+ and SIRT1, which protected the mice from Kidney damage.

NAD+ and SIRT1 levels were HIGHER in OLD Mice than in YOUNG Mice that did not receive NMN.



In a long-term experiment documented in the 2016 study (22) , mice were given 2 different doses of NMN over 12 months.

Testing revealed that NMN  prevents some aspects of  physiological decline in mice, noting these changes:

  • Decreased body weight and fat
  • Increased lean muscle mass
  • Increased energy and mobility
  • Improved visual acuity
  • Improved bone density
  • Is well-tolerated with no obvious bad side effects
  • Increased oxygen consumption and respiratory capacity
  • Improved insulin sensitivity and blood plasma lipid profile

Here are some quotes from  the  study:

NMN suppressed age-associated body weight gain, enhanced energy metabolism, promoted physical activity, improved insulin sensitivity and plasma lipid profile, and ameliorated eye function and other pathophysiologies

NMN-administered mice switched their main energy source from glucose to fatty acids

These results strongly suggest that NMN has significant preventive effects against age-associated impairment in energy metabolism

NMN effectively mitigates age-associated physiological decline in mice


Researchers found that NMN administration suppressed body weight gain by 4% and 9% in the 100 and 300 mg/kg/day groups.

Analyses of  blood chemistry panels and urine did not detect any sign of toxicity from NMN.

Although health span was clearly improved, there was no difference in maximum lifespan observed.

These results suggest that NMN administration can significantly suppress body weight gain without side effects


Oxygen consumption significantly increased in both 100 and 300 mg/kg/day groups during both light and dark periods (Figure 3A).

Energy expenditure also showed significant increases  (Figure 3B).

Respiratory quotient significantly decreased in both groups during both light and dark periods (Figure 3C),

This suggests that NMN-administered mice switched their main energy source from glucose to fatty acids.

The mice that had been receiving NMN for 12 months exhibited energy levels, food and water consumption equivalent to the mice in the control group that were 6 months younger.

NMN administration has significant preventive effects against age associated physical impairment


The first clinical trial of NMN in humans is currently underway by an international collaborative team between Keio University School of Medicine in Tokyo and Washington University School of Medicine (33).

Participants are 50 healthy women between 55 and 70 years of age with slightly high blood glucose,BMI and triglyceride levels.

Using a dose of 2 capsules of 125mg NMN per day over a period of 8 weeks, researchers are testing for:

  • change in insulin sensitivity
  • change in beta-cell function
  • works to control blood sugar
  • blood vessels dilate
  • effects of NMN on blood lipids
  • effects of NMN on body fat
  • markers of cardiovascular and metabolic health

According to the study:

“Data from studies conducted in rodents have shown that NMN supplementation has beneficial effects on cardiovascular and metabolic health, but this has not yet been studied in people”

Testing of metabolic parameter will continue for 2 years after supplementation has ended, so final results will not be published for some time yet, but preliminary results are expected to be announced in early 2018.


NMN is found in many food sources such as edamame, broccoli, cucumber,cabbage, avocado, tomato, beef and shrimp.

As such, it is likely free from serious side effects in humans, and has been available for purchase commercially for over 2 years.


In the long term (12 month) 2016 mouse study (22), both 100 and 300mg/kg per day improved oxygen consumption, energy expenditure, and physical activity more.

According to the FDA guidelines, an equivalent  would be about 560 mg for a 150lb human.

It should be noted that NMN administration did not generate any obvious toxicity, serious side effects, or increased mortality rate throughout the 12-month-long intervention period, suggesting the long-term safety of NMN.

The current Human study uses a dosage of 2 capsules of 125 mg, which seems to be the most commonly used dosage.


NAD+ levels decrease throughout the body as we age, contributing to disease and aging.

Restoring NAD+ levels can ameliorate many age released health issues.

All the NAD+ precursors are effective at raising NAD+ levels in the liver.

Raising NAD+ in the liver has many benefits, but is not effective in tissues and organs that cannot access NAD+ directly from the bloodstream and so depend on internal cellular NAD+ recycling.

For these tissues, utilizing each cells internal Salvage Pathway is necessary to restore NAD+ levels.

NR is not stable in the body and not normally found in the bloodstream, so is not readily available as NR to many tissues. Once metabolized to NAD+ it cannot enter cells. If metabolized to NAM it cannot bypass the Nampt bottleneck.

NMN is the only precursor that is stable and available to cells through the bloodstream, and can bypass the Nampt bottleneck to quickly restore NAD+ throughout the body.


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Head to Head Comparison of Short-Term Treatment with the NAD(+) Precursor Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) and 6 Weeks of Exercise in Obese Female Mice (Uddin, 2016)

NAD(+) levels were increased significantly both in muscle and liver by NMN
NMN-supplementation can induce similar reversal of the glucose intolerance
NMN intervention is likely to be increased catabolism of fats
NMN-supplementation does mimic exercise

DNA Damage

A conserved NAD+ binding pocket that regulates protein-protein interactions during aging (Sinclair, 2017)

This study showed supplementation with NMN was able to repair the DNA in cells damaged by radiation.

the cells of old mice were indistinguishable from young mice after just one week of treatment.”

Diabetes & Metabolic disease

Nicotinamide Mononucleotide, a Key NAD+ Intermediate, Treats the Pathophysiology of Diet- and Age-Induced Diabetes in Mice (Yoshino, 2011)

NMN was immediately utilized and converted to NAD+ within 15 min, resulting in significant increases in NAD+ levels over 60 min

administering NMN, a key NAD+ intermediate, can be an effective intervention to treat the pathophysiology of diet- and age-induced T2D

Surprisingly, just one dose of NMN normalized impaired glucose tolerance

Declining NAD+ Induces a Pseudohypoxic State Disrupting Nuclear-Mitochondrial Communication during Aging (Gomes, Sinclair,2013)

raising NAD+ levels in old mice restores mitochondrial function to that of a young mouse

treatment of old mice with NMN reversed all of these biochemical aspects of aging

restore the mitochondrial homeostasis and key biochemical markers of muscle health in a 22-month-old mouse to levels similar to a 6-month-old mouse

CardioVascular Disease

Nicotinamide mononucleotide, an intermediate of NAD+ synthesis, protects the heart from ischemia and repercussion (Yamamoto, 2014)

NMN significantly increased the level of NAD+ in the heart

NMN protected the heart from I/R injury

Nicotinamide mononucleotide supplementation reverses vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress with aging in mice (de Picciotto, 2016)

NMN reduces vascular oxidative stress
NMN treatment normalizes aortic stiffness in old mice
NMN represents a novel strategy for combating arterial aging

Short-term administration of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide preserves cardiac mitochondrial homeostasis and prevents heart failure (Zhang, 2017)

NMN can reduce myocardial inflammation

NMN thus can cut off the initial inflammatory signal, leading to reduced myocardial inflammation

Nicotinamide mononucleotide requires SIRT3 to improve cardiac function and bioenergetics in a Friedreich’s ataxia cardiomyopathy model

Remarkably, NMN administered to FXN-KO mice restores cardiac function to near-normal levels.

restoration of cardiac function and energy metabolism upon NMN supplementation
remarkable decrease in whole-body EE and cardiac energy wasting

Neurological Injury

Nicotinamide mononucleotide attenuates brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage by activating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway (Wei, 2017)

NMN treats brain injury in ICH by suppressing neuroinflammation/oxidative stress

NMN treatment protects against cICH-induced acute brain injury
NMN treatment reduces brain cell death and oxidative stress
These results further support the neuroprotection of NMN/NAD+


Effect of nicotinamide mononucleotide on brain mitochondrial respiratory deficits in an Alzheimer’s disease-relevant murine model (Long, 2015)

We now demonstrate that mitochondrial respiratory function was restored

Nicotinamide mononucleotide protects against β-amyloid oligomer-induced cognitive impairment and neuronal death (Wang, 2016)

NMN could restore cognition in AD model rats.
The beneficial effect of NMN is produced by ameliorating neuron survival, improving energy metabolism and reducing ROS accumulation.
These results suggest that NMN may become a promising therapeutic drug for AD

Nicotinamide mononucleotide inhibits JNK activation to reverse Alzheimer disease(Yao, 2017)

NMN Treatment Rescues Cognitive impairments
NMN Treatment Improves Inflammatory Responses

Kidney Disease
Nicotinamide Mononucleotide, an NAD+ Precursor, Rescues Age-Associated Susceptibility to AKI in a Sirtuin 1-Dependent Manner (Guan, 2017)

Supplementation with NMN restored kidney SIRT1 and NAD+ content in 20-month-old mice and protected both young and old mice from acute kidney injury.


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No, Butter is NOT bad for your heart health

butter-and-knife-on-wooden-chopping-boardFor the past decades, butter has been implicated as a significant cause of heart disease.

However, studies provide mixed results and whether butter truly increases the risk of chronic disease is hotly debated.

A recent meta-analysis examined how eating butter affects heart disease, type 2 diabetes and mortality risk. Here is a detailed summary of the findings.



Butter is a dairy product made from cream. It is almost pure milk fat, which mainly consists of saturated fatty acids.

The role of butter in health and disease is uncertain and hotly debated. Several studies show that a high intake of saturated fat is linked with a poor blood lipid profile, which is a risk factor for heart disease.

Additionally, one controlled trial showed that a high intake of saturated palm oil, rich in palmitic acid, caused greater gains in belly fat and liver fat, compared to polyunsaturated fat (1).

However, the largest and most recent meta-analyses of observational studies suggest that reducing saturated fat itself has neutral effects on health, whereas replacing it with certain unsaturated fats may have benefits (2).

Additionally, growing evidence suggests that not all saturated fats are the same and demonizing saturated fats as a whole is an oversimplification.

Nevertheless, official dietary guidelines continue to recommend lower intakes of all saturated fat and higher intakes of non-hydrogenated unsaturated fat (3).

Studies suggest that butter is different from other sources of dairy fat. Specifically, the fat in butter is not enclosed in a milk fat globule membrane (MFGM).

Several randomized controlled trials show that eating butter fat has worse effects on the blood lipid profile than other sources of dairy fat with an intact MFGM, such as cream or cheese (456).

Whether these effects translate into an elevated risk of hard endpoints, such as heart attacks, remains unclear.

Article Reviewed

This meta-analysis examined the association between butter intake and heart disease, diabetes and all-cause mortality or death.

Is Butter Back? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Butter Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, and Total Mortality.

Study Design

This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies and randomized controlled trials examining the association of butter consumption with heart disease, diabetes and mortality.

The researchers searched scientific databases for all relevant studies that fulfilled the exclusion criteria. When conducting the analysis, they followed the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines.

A total of 9 publications were selected, including a total of 636,151 participants. No randomized controlled trials with hard endpoints were found.

Bottom Line: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies investigating the association of butter with the risk of heart disease, diabetes and death.

Finding 1: Butter Was Weakly Linked With All-Cause Death

Two large observational studies assessing the links between butter consumption and all-cause mortality (death) were included in the meta-analysis. These studies included a total of 379,763 participants.

The analysis showed that the risk of death increased by 1% for each tablespoon (14 grams) of butter consumed daily.

Previous, large meta-analyses examining the effects of total saturated fat intake found no significant effects on overall mortality (27).

Bottom Line: The researchers discovered that for each tablespoon of butter eaten, the risk of death from any cause increased by 1%.

Finding 2: Butter Reduced the Risk of Diabetes

The analysis included four studies examining the links between butter consumption and type 2 diabetes. They included a total of 201,628 participants.

Pooling the findings from these studies, the researchers discovered that a higher intake of butter was linked with a modest decrease in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Specifically, the risk of type 2 diabetes decreased by 4% for each tablespoon (14 grams) eaten daily.

Other observational studies have found no association between dairy fat and type 2 diabetes, but a few support the present results, reporting a reduced risk with higher intakes (891011).

Bottom Line: The study showed that each tablespoon of butter eaten daily reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes by 4%.

Finding 3: Butter Was Not Linked With Heart Disease

Five of the included studies investigated the association of butter with heart disease.

When their results were combined, butter intake was not significantly linked with heart disease, including stroke and coronary heart disease.

These findings are supported by previous meta-analyses (1213).

Bottom Line: The meta-analysis showed that butter was not significantly associated with the risk of developing heart disease.


The main limitation of this meta-analysis was the observational design of the included studies. Observational studies cannot demonstrate causality.

Since high butter consumption is generally associated with unhealthy dietary patterns and lifestyle habits, the study might have overestimated the association of butter with mortality, and/or underestimated its links with type 2 diabetes.

Summary and Real-Life Application

This analysis suggests that butter is neutral when it comes to the risk of developing heart disease.

Additionally, it was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, but a slightly elevated risk of overall mortality. Since these findings were based on observational studies, they should be taken with a grain of salt.

It should be noted that the elevated mortality risk associated with butter is relatively small compared to many other foods, such as refined grains and sugar.

In conclusion, it seems there is no compelling reason to avoid butter. Moderate amounts should be fine. However, if you eat lots of it, it may be wise to replace some of it with oils that have proven health benefits, such as olive oil.

14 Best Foods for Weight Loss

We chose 14 fairly common foods that research proves can be helpful for weight loss.

Some, like Eggs, Greens, Salmon and Almonds are recommended for nearly all diets.

Others like Oats, Apples, or Chia seeds are great choices for many people, but are fairly high in carbs so don’t fit well in Low CarbPaleoMediterraneanNordicAtkins, or Keto diets.

Anyways, here’s our list and some of the science behind how they can help you  lose weight fast without depending on fad diet pills like Garcinia Cambogia.

I hope this gives you some good ideas.

1. Eggs

girl eating eggsGovernment guidelines that once slammed the cholesterol in eggs now admit they were wrong.

Dietary cholesterol does NOT raise your cholesterol levels, and in fact are very nutritious. (12).

In fact, eggs are one of the very best foods for weight loss.

A large egg is about 70 calories, 5 grams of fat, 6 protein, and no carbs (3).

The balanced protein and saturated fats  them very filling, and are nearly perfect for low carb dieters.

With no carbs, the score a zero on the glycemic index, so won’t raise blood sugar levels.

Simply eating eggs instead of bagels resulted in  significant weight loss for participants in this eight week study (4).

Another study showed that eating eggs instead of bagels increased feeling of fullness (satiety), and resulted in less calories consumed  later in the day (5).

[box] Conclusion: Eggs are a very nutritious high protein food that are also very filling and can result in fewer calories consumed throughout the day. [/box]

2. Kefir

KefirDepending on the type of milk used, 6 ounces of milk kefir  contains approximately

  • Calories – 100
  • Protein – 6 grams
  • Carbohydrates – 7-8 grams
  • Fat – 3-6 grams


After the fermentation process, Kefir is much lower in Carbs and Glycemic Index than milk.

It contains more than 20  different strains of friendly bacteria, including many lactobacillus and bifodobacteriam strains which are  beneficial (6).

Kefir also has beneficial yeasts which combat intestinal parasites like E. coli.

The fatty acids in Kefir are between  80-95% CLA – Conjugated Linoleum Acid  (7).

CLA helps glucose fill muscles cells more effectively,  preventing glucose from being converted to fat.

A review of 18 different clinical studies have shown CLA helps reduce body fat (8)

[box]Conclusion: Kefir is well balanced in Proteins, Carbs, and Saturated Fats, high in many beneficial probiotics, and CLAs which have been shown to aid weight loss.[/box]

3. Avocados

avocadoLike eggs, Avocados have gotten a bad rap from (faulty) mainstream nutritionists until just recently.

Now that we know that “eating fat doesn’t make you fat”,  attitudes are changing and Avocados are recognized as a very healthy diet choice.

A medium Avocado has:

  • Calories – 322
  • Carbohydrate – 17 grams
  • Fiber – 13 grams
  • Sugars – 1 gram
  • Fat – 29 grams
  • Protein – 4 grams
  • Glycemic Index – not measured


Avocados are very high  in a particular kind of fat – monounsaturated oleic acid.

Oleic acid has been linked to reduced inflammation and been shown to have beneficial effects on genes linked to cancer (11121314).

Oleic acid is converted in the body to CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid), which  we mentioned for Kefir that CLA  has been shown to help reduce body fat (15)guacamole-variations-06

With only 1 gram of carbohydrates as sugar and the rest being fiber which slows the absorption tremendously.

In fact, the glycemic index of Avocados is so low that the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition doesn’t even bother to calculate it (16).

High fats and fiber give Avocados a high satiety index, which was proven by research.

A study found that compared with other foods, subjects given Avocados  were  23% more satisfied and were 28% less likely to  eat for the next 5 hours (17).

They also contain nearly 20% of the RDA for potassium – an important mineral that  most people need a lot more of (18).

[box] Conclusion: Packed with beneficial fats and fibers, Avocados are very filling and hunger satiating.  For Keto dieters, a perfect compliment for Eggs in the morning. [/box]

4. Greens

leafy greens1Leafy greens such as spinach, chard, collard greens and Kale are very nutrient dense, but low in calories for volume and high in fiber.

Most leafy greens have fewer than 10 calories per cup  which make them one of the very best foods for weight control.

Research proves that  including very low in energy density foods result in fewer overall calories consumed and  has been proven in many  (19).

Full of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and phytonutrients that combat  diabetes, heart disease, and even cancer (20),

[box] Conclusion: Low in calories and high in nutrients make leafy greens another no-brainer for weight loss.  Nearly all diet plans recommend eating as much leafy greens as you wish [/box]

5. Wild Salmon

salmonFish are very high in protein, so are recommended by nearly all diet plans.

But some fish are more healthy than others, with Salmon, mackerel, trout, sardines and other oily fish being at the top of the list.

Salmon in particular is  high in  Omega-3 fat which has numerous health benefits besides combating metabolic disease (2122).

One study found eating farmed Salmon 2 times a week resulted in 50% higher levels in the blood of the important Omega 3 fat DHA (23).

Nutrients in Fresh vs Farmed Salmon

There are noticable differences in Wild vs Farm-raised Salmon, as this table shows.

According to the  USDA, wild Salmon has 130 less calories than farm raised Salmon per serving.

These calories are mostly from fat, but not the good Omega 3 fats that we need more of (24).

Unfortunately, farm raised Salmon are much higher in Omega-6 fats.

They also have 3 times as much saturated fat.  Not terrible, but not as beneficial as Omega 3 fats.

Those on a Ketogenic diet might actually prefer the higher fat content of farm raised Salmon.  Others would probably prefer the lower calories of Wild Salmon.

[box] Conclusion: All fish are excellent sources of protein, but the Omega 6 fats in Salmon put it at the top of the list for weight loss. [/box]

6. Grapefruit

Pink-GrapefruitA medium sized red grapefruit has:

  • Calories – 97
  • Fiber – 4 grams
  • Protein –  2 grams
  • Carbohydrates – 26 grams
  • Fat – 0 grams
  • Glycemic Index – 29
  • Vitamin A (79% RDA)
  • Vitamin C (107% RDA)
  • Vitamin A (79% RDA)
  • Pantothenic acid (14.% RDA)

As fruit go, they are fairly low in calories,  with an excellent Glycemic Index, but it isn’t obvious why Grapefruit has been so popular with dieters for decades now.

The answer rests on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an enzyme that  helps muscles use stored sugar and fat for energy.

AMPK activity  is increased by exercise, but can also be activated by certain food substances such as Polyphenols and Capsacin.

Another such substance is Nootkatone,   a component found in grapefruit has been shown to significantly increase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity (25).

Researchers found that study participants given 1/2 a  grapefruit  or the same quantity of juice before meals lost an average of  3.5 pounds over 12 weeks (26).

3.5 pounds isn’t huge, but that was from eating just 1/2 a grapefruit with no other changes.  Participants also had lower blood glucose and insulin sensitivity.

[box] Conclusion: Eating Grapefruit or grapefruit juice before meals helps your body store more calories in muscle, leaving less for fat storage and results in modest weight loss [/box]

7. Apples 

applesA medium Apple has:

  • Calories – 95
  • Carbohydrate – 25 grams
  • Fiber – 4 grams
  • Fat – 0 grams
  • Protein – 0 grams
  • Glycemic Index – 29

Apples are all carbs, with no fat or protein, which normally isn’t great for weight loss.

However, the do have a very low Glycemic Index, are very high in Antioxidants, dietary fiber, flavonoids, and often make most lists of Top Healthy Foods

The antioxidants and nutrients may help reduce risks of hypertension, diabetes, cancer, and heart disease (27).

For weight loss, a 12 week study showed women that added  one and a half large apples daily to their diet lost  on average about 3 pounds (28).

The  fiber in apples is Pectin, a soluble fiber that has been shown to  increase satiety, improve metabolic health, and decrease caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity (30,)

This low energy density,  glycemic index, and soluble fiber make it an excellent food for weight loss for most people, although the 25 grams of carbohydrate is problematic for those on Low Carb or Ketogenic diets.

[box]Conclusion: Apples are a great portable, nutritions snack food that can alleviate a craving for sweets, while giving a little boost to your  weight loss efforts.[/box]

8. Oatmeal

oatmeal_bellyfillingA cup of rolled oats contains:

  • Calories – 300
  • Fats – 5 grams
  • Carbohydrates – 56 grams
  • Fiber – 8 grams
  • Protein – 11 grams
  • Glycemic Index – 55

Oatmeal is fairly high in calories and carbs.  But they do have a fairly low glycemic index of 55 so the calories are absorbed fairly slowly.

They contain the soluble fiber beta gluten, which has been shown to increase feelings of satiation, and fight insulin resistance and hypertension (31).

Studies show that compared with standard breakfast cereals of the same calorie count, oatmeal provides more protein and fiber, less sugar, and induced greater satiety (32).

In another study published in 2013, subjects who consumed oatmeal for breakfast over 12 weeks had reduced weight, BMI, and waist to hip ratio.

A 2013 issue of Plant Foods and Human Nutrition published a study that showed oat cereal consumed for 12 weeks did associate with reduced body weight, body mass index, body fat and waist-to-hip ratio (33)

** Before I went Keto and had to cut the oatmeal, one of my favorite tricks was mixing it with Cottage Cheese.  Tastes yummy and gives you a nice balance of carbs and proteins.

[box] Conclusion:  Studies confirm what every oatmeal eater knows – they are very filling and slowly absorbed to keep hunger at bay for many hours.  While they are too high in carbs for some diets, they can aid weight loss, especially when eaten in place of commercial cereals.  [/box]

9. Beef

Grilled New York strip steak
Grilled New York strip steak

We could list Chicken and Pork here as well, but are focusing on Beef to also address what we feel is some unfair criticisms Beef suffers from.

Research shows that eating red meat does not increase risks of diabetes, hypertension, or heart disease  (3435).

Other studies  show no increase in cancer risks for women from consuming red meats, and only a very minute increase in risk for men  (3637).

Studies show there are many benefits for eating beef, as a high protein diet can increase metabolism to burn up to 100 calories more each day (3839).

Other research demonstrates that increasing  protein to 30% of total calories can cut hunger and result in weight loss of a pound a week  (4041).

[box] Conclusion: Sufficient protein is key to weight loss.  Adding whole, unprocessed beef to you diet can result in significant weight loss [/box]

10. Coconut Oil

coconut-oilCoconut oil is composed almost entirely of Saturated Fats, which faulty advice has caused many people to fear unjustly.

This very healthy oil is unique in that it is nearly all  Medium Chain Fatty Acids (42).

Unlike all other fats, Medium Chain Fatty Acids  bypass the digestive system and go straight to the liver to be used for energy or  ketone bodies.

Studies show that consuming coconut oil increases metabolism  compared to equal calories of other fats (4344).

Another study showed taking 2 tablespoons of MCT  fats per day increased energy consumption (fat burning) by 120 calories per day  (45).

Coconut oil also helps suppress appetite.

Studies show that eating MCT fats cut hunger and participants consumed less calories throughout the day – up to 250 less in one study  (4647).

[box] Conclusion: Right behind Olive Oil in overall health benefits, Coconut oil can also aid weight loss when used in place of other fats for cooking or baking recipes [/box]

11. Goji Berries


One ounce of dried Goji Berry contain:

  • Fiber – 2 grams
  • Carbohydrates – 6 grams
  • Protein – 3 grams
  • Calories – 23
  • Fat – 0
  • Glycemic Index – 29


Goji Berries are harvested from the Lycium Barbarum plant, from the box thorn family.

They are native to southern Europe and Asia, but most commercially produced Goji is from China, where it is also known as Chinese Boxthorn or Wolfberry.

Goji have a very good nutritional profile that includes high level of antioxidants, especially zeaxanthin (48)

  • 11 essential and 22 trace dietary minerals
  • 6 Vitamins
  • 18 amino acids
  • beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols
  • 5 carotenoids, including beta-carotene and zeaxanthin, lutein, lycopene and cryptoxanthin

They have a lot of protein, high dietary fiber and  low glycemic index which makes them filling without raising blood sugar levels.

Goji berry is an adaptogen that is claimed to reduce stress levels and lowers cortisol levels which promote weight gain (49).

The ORAC value of Goji Berry, which measures antioxidant levels, is about 10x higher than other fruits like Oranges or Blueberries, and is comparable to Acai (50).

A 2011 double blind study with Rodents given Lycium Barbarum extract showed increased metabolic rate and reduced waist size compared to placebo (51).

In 2008, a 14 day study of adults given Lycium Barbarum showed improved Energy Level, athletic performance, quality of sleep, and gastrointestinal function (52).

One downside of Goji Berries is the cost – they are fairly pricey.

[box] Conclusion: Packed with vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and fiber, with low glycemic index, Goji Berries make a handy and healthy snack for a little weight loss boost [/box]

12. Almonds

almonds-master_0One ounce of Almonds  contains:

  • Calories – 160
  • Fat – 14 grams
  • Carbs – 2.5 grams
  • Fiber –  3.5 grams.
  • Protein – 6 grams.
  • Vitamin E: 37% of the RDA.
  • Manganese: 32% of the RDA.
  • Magnesium: 20% of the RDA.

Almonds are high in protein and  fiber which  has been shown to promote satiety and result in lower overall calorie consumption (53).

The also have a very low glycemic index which means those calories are absorbed very slowly, making them an approved food source for diabetics (5455).

Nearly all of the fats in Almonds are  mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are known to have positive effects on heart disease (56).

Research has shown consuming almonds can lead to improved metabolism, lower blood sugar levels and weight loss (575859)

Almonds are fairly high in calories, so should not be consumed in massive quantities, but rather serve as a handy snack between meals to alleviate hunger.

[box] Conclusion: High in protein and fiber, and low in carbs, Almonds make a great between meal snack, especially for Low Carb dieters. [/box]

13. Chia Seeds


One ounce of Chia seeds  contains:

  • Calories – 137
  • Fat – 9 grams
  • Carbs – 12 grams
  • Fiber –  11 grams.
  • Protein – 4 grams.

Chia seeds contain 12 grams of carbohydrate per ounce, which is fairly high, but 11 of those grams are  soluble fiber.

This makes chia seeds a low-carb friendly food, and one of the best sources of fiber in the world

This soluble fiber makes Chia seed much like Glucomannan, in that they absorb more than 10x their weight in water, and turn into a gel in your stomach (61).

Not only is this very filling, but the soluble fiber acts as a prebiotic for the beneficial bacteria in your gut – the Probacteria that have weight loss benefits  as well  (626364656667).

The 9 grams of fat is mostly Omega 3 fats, which have tremendous  benefits for heart health.

Chia seeds are also high in  Vitamins A, B, E, and D,  iron, magnesium, iodine, niacin, thiamine, and many antioxidants (68).

Studies show consumption of  chia seeds suppress  appetite, but so far they are inconclusive at proving weight loss (6970).

[box] Conclusion: Packed with vitamins, minerals, anti-oxidants, protein, Omega 3  fats, and fiber make Chia seeds one of the most nutritious foods on earth.  Although short term weight loss benefits are unproven, they are filling and do suppress appetite.  [/box]

14. Chili Pepper

chili peppersThe “hot” in chili peppers is from a substance called capsaicin,

Numerous research studies and clinical trials  have shown capsaicin  gives a boost to metabolism to  increase fat burning, and also helps suppress appetite (717273).

However, one study shows that the increased fat burning and hunger suppression is more effective for those who are not used to consuming capsaicin, and the effects diminish over time (74).

Besides weight loss, Capsaicin is believed to have these additional health benefits

  • Aid digestion
  • Reduce pain from Migraine headaches
  • Sooth aching joints
  • Support Detox

Amazon has over 1500 products that include capsaicin in the form of Cayenne (a type of chile pepper)

[box] Conclusion: Adding Cayenne or other chili peppers to your food wherever you can is a simple way to add some pep to your weight loss efforts. [/box]

Final Thoughts

None of these are miracle foods that you can use to reach your weight loss goals all by themselves.

But they are all healthy choices and do have modest benefits for weight loss, proven by research.

Incorporate as many of these foods as you can into your diet in place of less healthy alternatives and you will see results.

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Lactobacillus Gasseri – the Weight Loss Probiotic?

There are millions of bacteria that inhabit our guts.  Most are beneficial, and are referred to as Probiotics.

A healthy and diverse population of these good bacteria are key to proper functioning of our digestive and immune systems, greatly impacting our physical and mental health. (1234).

We can improve the population of good bacteria in our guts thru proper nutrition, and by taking Probiotic supplements.

Research has shown this can relieve many chronic health problems.  While not as strong as Garcinia Cambogia, some Probiotics may also help us lose weight and belly fat.

Probiotic Strains that may help lose weight and belly fat

650x600_lactobacillus_finalStudies have found that certain strains of the Lactobacillus family can help you lose weight and belly fat.

In one study, eating yogurt with Lactobacillus fermentum or Lactobacillus amylovorus reduced body fat by 3–4% over a 6-week period (21).

Another study of 125 overweight dieters investigated the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus supplements on weight loss and weight maintenance (22).

During a 3-month study period, the women taking the probiotics lost 50% more weight compared to the group taking a dummy pill (placebo). They also continued to lose weight during the weight maintenance phase of the study.

Note that in these 2 studies mentioned above subjects were provided with Prebiotics along with the LG (Yoghurt and Inulin) which is thought to improve the effectiveness.

Lactobacillus Gasseri

Lactobacillus gasseri is generating the most excitement and further research for its  effects on weight loss.

There have been several mouse studies that showed positive results for weight control (25262728).

Human studies are also promising.  Most recently,  a 2 week study of 30 healthy men in 2015.

Subject were given a glass of fermented milk to drink every day, with half including Lactobacillus gasseri in their drink and the other half not.

Testing of fecal samples before and after the study showed those receiving Lactobacillus gasser had a higher amount of fat in the feces after the 2 weeks, while the control group did not (29).

lactobacillus gasseri and weight loss

Effect of intake of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus gasseri on fecal fat excretion in humans.

This proved that not only does the Lactobacillus gasseri survive the digestive process, but that it had an effect on the metabolism, resulting in less fat being absorbed.

This study demonstrates the mechanism for how Lactobacillus gasseri can effect the system.

An earlier Japanese study showed Lactobacillus gasseri can effectively reduce waist size, BMI and the dangerous visceral fat that accumulates around the organs (30).

A Korean company has patented a form of LG derived from mothers milk they call Lactobacillus gasseri BNR17, and been granted a certificate of Functional Ingredient for Body Fat reduction  (31)

Some strains of the Lactobacillus family have been shown to reduce weight and belly fat. Lactobacillus gasseri appears to be the most effective.

Natural Food Sources of Lactobacillus Gasseri

probiotic foodsLactobacillus bacteria is the most commonly used for fermentation.

Most fermented foods naturally contain Lactobacillus gasseri bacteria.

Kombucha, Kefir, yoghurt and pickled vegetables like kimchi, sauerkraut are good sources of a wide variety of Lactobacillus strains.

Some fermented meats like salami and chorizo also contain lactobacillus bacteria.

You can also ferment foods yourself at home, but be sure to do it properly. I recommend starting with these recipes for kefir, kimchi or sauerkraut.

Lactobacillus gasseri is also found naturally in breast milk, which is thought to help the development of an infant’s immune system.

Where to buy Lactobacillus Gasseri

amazon cartLactobacillus Gasseri is the most effective probiotic strain for weight loss identified so far.

There are several brands on Amazon that include some L Gasseri in combination with 10 or more other strains.

These are the only 2 we have been able to find that primarily use L Gasseri.

Swanson  – A single strain – Lactobacillus Gasseri –  3 billion CFUs.

Phillips Colon Health  – 3 different strains including Lactobacillus Gasseri –  1.5 billion CFUs.

What Are Probiotics?

Probiotics are bacteria (biotic)  we eat that are beneficial (pro) to our bodies.

We humans carry around 10 times as many microorganisms with us as we have cells in our body.  (5).

what are probiotics
They are most prominent in  the stomach and intestinal tract where they aid nutrient absorption and  immune system and are referred to as our gut flora or gut microbiome.

There are hundreds  of strains   of these friendly bacteria that aid digestion and produce important nutrients, including B and K vitamins.

Antibiotics we sometimes use can  kill or inhibit the growth of the “good”  bacteria in our gut as well as the the “bad” bacteria which can seriously impact our health (6).

By adding more probiotic foods into your diet, you could reap the following health benefits:

  • Stronger immune system
  • Healing leaky gut syndrome and IBS
  • Improved digestion
  • Increased energy
  • Weight loss
  • Healthier skin

 Damage to our Digestive Systems

Probiotics-vs-Antibiotics-1Modern agricultural practices including  rampant use of pesticides, chlorine soaking,  preservatives and refrigeration   leave our foods have very little probiotics today.

In fact, some foods now have dangerous antibiotics that destroy the bacteria in our digestive system.

In addition to the problems with our foods, we also encounter many toxins in our environment that harm our digestive system, resulting in chronic inflammation that is the root cause of many diseases and chronic health issues
Damaged from:

  • Antibiotics
  • Processed Grains
  • Sugar
  • Emotional Stress
  • Chemicals and medications

Too many of us are subjected  to many of these everyday.  If they’re not addressed, the population of good bacteria is decimated  and you gut can become a breeding ground for bad bacteria, parasites, yeast and fungi.

Our foods, environment, stresses and medicines can all damage the biology in our guts and wreak havoc on our health.

How does Gut Bacteria affect weight

woman-eating-yogurt-with-berries-flaxThe biology of our guts is not static, and can be changed by diet and outside environmental factors(12).

Bacteroidetes and firmicutes are the 2 main families of bacteria that are important for regulating bodyweight by digesting  fatty acids and dietary polysaccharides.

Imbalance of these ratios (gut dysbiosis)  affect weight loss or gain.
The functions of the hundreds of different strains of bacteria are complex and not entirely understood, with some disagreement among researchers (78).

Some bacteria help digest  fiber into beneficial fatty acids  butyrate (9).

Prevotella  is a enterotype, or  family of bacteria strain that help digest carbohydrates and are more prevalent in people who consume a lot of carbohydrates.

Bacteroides are another family of bacteria that is more prevalent in people who consume significant amounts of animal protein.

Increasing the population of certain strains of bacteria is now thought to effect how our bodies process and store food, which can affect weight.

weight-loss-research-scientists-mouseAn early sign of this was a study where gut bacteria from obese mice that are transplanted into the guts of normal weight mice result in those mice soon becoming obese (13).

Minimising low-grade inflammation, one of the main drivers behind metabolic disease, is the primary suspect (141516).

In people, studies show that those who are overweight  have much different populations of bacteria  than people of normal weight (1718).

This lead to further studies to see which strains of bacteria were different.

Those studies show normal weight people have more bacteroidetes, and fewer firmicutes than overweight people. (1920).

Several studies have demonstrated regular use can increase number and diversity of bacteria microbiota, and provide relief from colitis, diarrhea, and improve immune system response (32,33,34,35,36,37)

These results opened up some very exciting possibilities for weight loss to see how much we can alter our gut bacteria to help cure obesity.

There is wide variation in the population of bacteria in each persons gut. Research shows it is influenced by out diet, and these bacteria play a powerful role in controlling weight

Final Thoughts

Besides weight loss, a healthy microbiome can have improve digestive health, reduce inflammation, improve cardiovascular risk factors and even help fight depression and anxiety.

Proper diet is the best way to improve your gut flora.

Probiotic Supplements can also increase the number and diversity of your gut flora.

Research indicates probiotics can help some people lose belly fat and weight.

The effects are minor though, along the lines of what you might expect from using Cumin
or Niagen.

On the plus side though, Probiotics do not have the side effects
of strong diet supplements.

As always, we recommend a low carb diet and more exercise as the most effective way to lose weight.

Is Fruit Juice good for weight loss?

girl drinking juiceThere are many  popular detox, cleanse, and other liquid diets that utilize  fruit juices as a primary source of calories

The lemon cleanse diet is typical.  For 10 days you have a lemonade drink, saltwater, and an herbal tea laxative.  Participants do lose weight as they are taking in very few calories, but also lose muscle.

It is debatable if the lemon juice helps or the 10 day  fast works just as well with other liquids.

The popularity of such diets is partly  because people believe all fruit juices are healthy since they are “natural”, and full of  vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants

However, many people do not recognize that fruit juice sometimes contains just as much, if not more, sugar and calories than sugar-filled soft drinks (1).

While fruit juices do have many nutrients, they are not magical, and for weight loss purposes they do not outweigh the negative effects of the sugar content.

Do NOT assume it that all fruit juices are healthy drink choices, especially for weight loss

Processed Fruit Juice Isn’t the Same as Fresh Squeezed

fresh squeezedWhile fruit juice is in fact made with fruit, the manufacturing process removes much of the fiber and some nutrition (2,3).

Even juices that are labelled “Not From Concentrate” or “100% Juice” have additional additives and flavor enhancers, and manufacturers often use deceptive labeling.

Fruit juice is not often packaged and sold immediately after being squeezed from the fruit. It may sit in an oxygen-depleted holding tank for up to a year before it is put in a package and ends up in stores (4).

Much of the flavor is lost during this storage period so manufacturers enhance their products with “flavor packs” which is not noted on the label (5).

Even high quality juices are a far cry from fresh squeezed.

Inexpensive juices are even worse, as many of those are just sugar-filled water with a little fruit flavoring.

Even the highest quality juice goes through a manufacturing process that causes it to lose flavor which requires producers to add “flavor packs” to restore its natural flavor.

More Sugar than Soda


The high sugar content of fruit juices is often overlooked, and  people consider them to be a healthier choice than sodas, but this is not always true.

8  ounces of Coca Cola classic contains 97 calories and 27 grams, or 7 teaspoons, of sugar.

In comparison, an 8 ounce serving of grape juice contains 152 calories and 36 grams, or 9.8 teaspoons, of sugar!

From this chart, Pineapple, Cranberry, and Apple Juice all have higher calorie and sugar content than Coca Cola

Some Fruit juices contains just as much or more sugar and  calories than soda.

Liquid Calories are Uniquely Fattening

liquid caloriesWhile all foods contain calories, our bodies do not process them the same.

Different foods are processed differently and have differing effects on the hunger hormone levels, feelings of hunger, and the metabolic centers of the brain (67).

Our body has a naturally set weight point, and the brain adjusts feelings of hunger in relation to consumption of solid foods around this (8).

Liquids have a very different effect on our bodies response than solid foods.  They do not promote feelings of fullness or satiety.

Since they do not contribute to feelings of satiety, the brain continues to send messages of hunger and we actually consume more calories than we need (9,10).

This is one of the reasons sugar-filled, high-calorie drinks are often to blame for obesity.

One study showed that a child’s risk of obesity increased by 60 percent for every serving of sugary drink they consumed (11).

Other studies have also proven that overconsumption of fruit juice increases the risk of obesity and Type II diabetes (121314).

Controlled studies proved that consuming sugar in liquid form can cause insulin resistance, raise triglyceride levels, negatively impact LDL cholesterol, and cause accumulation of belly fat in as little as ten weeks (15).

Fructose can be the worst form of sugar

glucose vs fructose

Many people assume Fructose is better for you than the Sucrose in soda since it comes from fruit and  is more “natural”

Actually, Fructose is worse if you consume more than your body needs


Your body burns Glucose for energy, and it is easily stored in muscle cells or as glycogen in the liver.

Your pancreas produces insulin in response to excessive blood glucose levels to signal transport of the glucose to muscles, glycogen storage in the liver, and lastly as storage in fat cells.

Insulin also regulates the production of the “hunger hormone” Leptin, which signals satiety, or fullness to the brain so you stop eating.


Sucrose is about 50% glucose and 50% sucrose (16).

When sucrose is consumed it is easily metabolized to fructose and glucose.  The body uses the glucose for energy and the fructose is metabolized by the liver.


Your pancreas  does not produce insulin  in response to consumption of fructose (17).

Insulin regulates production of the “hunger hormone” Leptin.  Lower levels of Leptin lead to  overconsumption (18).

Fructose is only metabolized in the liver where it is converted into glucose, glycogen, lactate, and triglyceride (19).

About 50% of fructose is converted in liver to glucose for use as energy, with about quarter converted to lactate. 18%  to glycogen, for storage in the liver and 1% to triglyceride.

Too much fructose  can lead to fatty build-up in the liver which can hinder liver function and has been shown to increase risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes (20,21222324).

This effect is even more pronounced for people who are overweight or already suffer from metabolic disorders (2526).

In another study done with actual fruit juice, participants were asked to drink just 16 ounces of grape juice a day for three months.

In that short amount of time, researches noticed increased insulin resistance and waist circumference (27).

A third study showed that drinking 2 or more 8 ounce servings of fruit juice a day more than doubled the risk of gout in women (28).

Consuming too much fructose can be hard on the liver, and  lead to insulin resistance, metabolic problems, and weight gain.

Whole fruit is much more filling

fiber fruit
Drinking a glass of fruit juice prompts VERY different response in our bodies  compared to eating a whole piece of fruit.

While fruit juice does contain vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants necessary for good health, it is not as nutrient-rich as whole fruits or vegetables.

For example, orange juice contains Vitamins C and B1, folate and potassium (29) along with healthy antioxidants (3031).

However, it contains none of the fiber of an orange which makes it a poor choice compared to whole oranges or  vegetables (32).

Fruit takes more effort to chew and swallow, and whole fruit is hard to overconsume since it is very filling (33).

The sugars in fruit also break down during digestion more slowly than those in fruit juices since  the pulp contains a lot of fiber.

Because fruit juice has no fiber and is easy to consume in larger quantities than whole fruit, many people ingest too much sugar.

Whole Fruit Good – Fruit Juice, not so much

Fruit-Salad-BowlDespite the fact that nutrition guidelines state that a serving of fruit juice counts towards the daily recommended allowance of fruit, in many cases it is not a good choice.

While it may seem healthy because it contains fruit, fruit juices are actually more similar to sugary sodas and should be enjoyed only in very small quantities, if at all.

Whole fruit contains more fiber and nutrition, is more filling, and always a better choice than juice.

You might also want to read about Dried Fruit – is it good for weight loss.


Nordic Diet Review

vikingThe Nordic diet is one of the latest weight loss trends to hit the market.

The diet gets its name from its focus on cuisine customarily eaten in Nordic countries like Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, and Iceland.

These areas generally have lower obesity rates than the US (1).

Studies have shown that this diet can help people lose weight and make some small improvements to their overall health (2, 3).

What is the Nordic Diet?

The Nordic diet was created in 2004 by a number of nutrition experts in response to the growing obesity rate and unmaintainable farming practices of the US(5).

They noticed Nordic countries did not have these same issues(6).

They created the plan based on the thought process that eating similar foods could yield the same results for Americans(7).

It also contains less sugar and fat and two times the fiber of the average Western regimen (8).

The Nordic diet focuses on sustainably sourced vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins while avoiding the processed and high fat items customarily associated with the West.

Foods Found on the Diet

diet_nordic_be_essenceThe Nordic diet concentrates on locally grown food from sustainable sources.

Participants can eat a variety of foods, and, unlike some of today’s popular whole food plans, it does not require partakers to avoid entire food groups.

The Nordic diet is somewhat similar to the popular Mediterranean diet except for its emphasis on rapseed rather than olive oil.

On this plan you eat an abundance of vegetables, legumes, potatoes, whole grains, healthy fats like nuts and seeds, and lean proteins, especially seafood.

Dieters can also eat some eggs, cheese, yogurt, and wild meats like venison(9).

Red meats and fats from animal sources should only be eaten very rarely.

Lastly, you should completely eliminate sodas, processed foods of any kind, and foods high in fat and sugar.

This fare is commonplace in Nordic countries today, but some detractors of the diet point out that the above listed foods are not traditionally from the region since many of them do no grow well in the cold climate.

This criticism is not significant however since the effectiveness of the diets stems from its focus on whole foods in general rather than foods of a specific origin.

The Nordic Diet emphasizes foods traditionally eaten in Nordic countries with the bulk of a person’s nutrition coming from sustainably farmed seafood and vegetables. Participants reap benefits by avoiding the fat, sugar, and additives commonly found in the American diet.

Impact on Weight

nordic diet amazonSeveral studies have been done on how the Nordic diet impacts weight. One study of nearly 150 overweight people found that those who adhered to the diet lost an average of 10.4 lbs over those who ate a traditional Danish diet and only lost 3.3 lbs (10).

This is highly significant considering participants did not have to count or limit calories at all.

However, most of these participants gained the weight back over the following year as is typical with many diets (11).

Another study showed that participants on the Nordic diet lost an average of 4 percent body fat, pointedly more than the participants who consumed an average diet (12).

This is likely due to the focus on lean proteins and avoidance of fatty meats and animal fats.

The Nordic diet shows significant short term weight loss that can be achieved without limiting the amount a participant eats.

Health Improvements on the Nordic Diet

The Nordic diet also improves health in other ways. Several studies showed participants had improved blood pressure but no significant improvements in cholesterol levels, blood sugar, or inflammation.

Blood Pressure

lower-blood-pressure-naturallyThe Nordic diet may meaningfully reduce blood pressure.

A 6 month study showed that participants who adhered to the diet reduced their systolic blood pressure by 5.1 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure by 3.2 mmHg compared to a control group (13).

Another study found this effect was more notable in people with metabolic issues (14).

Lowering blood pressure improves health by reducing the risk of serious ailments such as heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and kidney problems (15).

Cholesterol and Triglycerides

Studies showed inconsistent results on the Nordic diet’s effect on cholesterol and triglyceride measurements.

Most studies returned a decrease in triglycerides, an important measure of heart health, but an insignificant impact on LDL and HDL cholesterol (16).

One study, however, did note a mild decline of LDL-c/HDL-c and Apo B/Apo A1 ratios and non-HDL cholesterol which can reduce the likelihood of heart disease (17).

Blood Sugar Levels

While one study found a small reduction in fasting blood sugar, the Nordic diet did not prove to be notably effective at lowering overall blood sugar levels (18).


inflammation-1Inflammation is a normal part of the body’s immune response, but it can cause health problems when levels are too high.

Many people seek to control inflammation with diet. However, studies of the Nordic diet’s impact on inflammation yielded mixed results.

One study found a decreased presence of genes that indicate inflammation in the body’s fat cells (19), and another found a reduction in a certain inflammatory marker.

However, most studies showed no meaningful or significant results (20).

The Nordic diet is effective for lowering blood pressure but has not been proven to have an impact on other factors like cholesterol, triglycerides, blood sugar levels, and signs of inflammation.

The Nordic Diet and the Environment

Another important factor of the Nordic diet is its effect on the environment(21).

It concentrates on foods that are locally grown and farmed with sustainable methods.

Some proponents also stress purchasing organic foods whenever possible.

Following the Nordic Diet protects the environment, promote good health by avoiding pesticides, and benefit the local economy.

Final Thoughts:

While the Nordic diet can lead to short-term weight loss, its results are not overwhelmingly.

There is nothing special about focusing on traditional Nordic foods over the foods of any other region.

Its main benefit comes from replacing traditional American fare that is highly processed and high in sugars and fat with sustainably produced whole, single-ingredient foods like vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein.

Many of today’s popular diets like Atkins, Paleo and Mediterranean diet also adhere to these principle which have been shown to improve health across the board.

Why Eggs are GREAT weight loss food

girl-holding-an-eggYou may have heard that researchers and  nutritionists have admitted they were wrong about Eggs and now say that Eggs do NOT contribute to Cardiovascular Disease and are in fact good for your health.

In fact Eggs are one of the best choices for a healthy weight loss.

They are rich in healthy fats, muscle-building protein, and are chock-full of minerals and vitamins. Eggs help you lose weight in the healthiest way.

Read more below about how eggs aid weight loss.

Low in Calories

eggsEveryone knows that reducing daily calories is the best way to slim down.  The trick is to eat foods that fill you up without too many calories

Most snack foods begin in the 100-calorie range, but a large egg is only around 80 calories. Eggs are healthier than packaged snacks; in fact, egg yolks are surprisingly nutritious (1).

Since a meal containing eggs usually made up of three eggs, you’ll be consuming a little over 240 calories, maybe 300 of you add a heaping serving of vegetables.

However, keep in mind that frying eggs in butter or oil can add around 50 calories per teaspoon.

One large egg equals 80 calories, and a complete meal of 3 boiled eggs and vegetables is only around 300!

Feel Fuller Longer

Eating-Right-SatietyBecause of high protein content, eggs are not only filled with nutrients, but they will help you feel fuller longer as well (2).

Foods that are high-protein rank highly on the Satiety Index, a scakle that evaultatues how full one feels after eating a meal (3). This means they suppress appetite and make you feel less inclined to snack.

Foods with a lower protein content often don’t leave you feeling as satisfied. In fact, several studies have showed that people eating meals with the same calorie content as egg meals report feeling less full than those who consumed a high-protein food, such as eggs ( 45).

This reduces daily thoughts about snacking by up to 60 percent, and cuts the desire for night snacking by fifty percent (67).

Eggs rank high on the Satiety Index scale and may help those who consume them feel fuller for a longer period. High-protein foods such as eggs might also banish the urge to snack less.

Speed up Your Metabolism

speed metabolism

Because eggs contain the ideal ratios of essential amino acids, your body can efficiently use egg protein for metabolic rate and body maintenance.

In fact, due to the thermic effect of food, which is the energy your body requires to break down food, eating high-protein foods can raise metabolism to the effect of 80-100 calories a day (89).

Thermic effect is higher for protein and lower for fats and carbohydrates (1011). Therefore, eggs can make you burn more calories than foods with a lower protein content.

A high-protein diet including eggs might raise your metabolism by up to 80–100 calories per day. This is because more calories are utilized to metabolism food protein.

Start Your Day the Right Way

Healthy-Egg-Breakfast-Muffins-RecipeBreakfasts including eggs are the best choice for those trying to lose weight, and studies of overweight women have shown that breakfasts including eggs aid weight loss more than other breakfasts, including those that contain the same amount of calories.

Women who consumed eggs instead of bagels felt fuller and ate less calories over the next day and a half.

A study including men showed similar results, reducing calorie intake for the 24 hours following an egg breakfast (12).In fact, eggs breakfasts can result in 65 percent more weight loss over a two-month period (1314).

Egg breakfasts also resulted in more stable blood glucose levels and the body’s insulin response. Eggs were also shown to suppress the hunger hormone known as ghrelin(15).

Yet another study, this one including 30 healthy, fit young men compared the effects of three common breakfasts types.

These three breakfasts were eggs with toast, cereal with milk and toast, and a croissant with orange juice. All breakfasts were tested during different times of the day as well.

Not surprisingly, the breakfast containing eggs led to a greater feeling of fullness, greater meal satiety, and less hunger overall.

Additionally, men who had consumed eggs for breakfast ate 270-470 calories less for lunch and dinner (16).

The reduction in calorie intake was unintentional by the men involved in the study.

Eating eggs for breakfast may subconsciously lead to healthier food choices for up to 36 hours.

Affordable and Easy

50-egg-dishesIt is easy to add eggs into your daily diet.

Eggs are sold at the vast majority of grocery stores, are inexpensive, and only take minutes to prepare.

Eggs are easy to fry, bake, boil, or prepare as an omelette, and taste great any way you make them.

In fact, a two-egg breakfast omelette containing vegetables may make for one of the best ways to enjoy a breakfast conducive to weight loss.

There are hundreds of  great egg recipes to try.

Eggs are affordable, readily available, and are easy to prepare.

Final Thoughts

  • Eating eggs is easy if you’re trying to slim down a little.
  • Eggs make you feel fuller longer and keep you from eating too many calories a day.
  • Eggs are a great source of key vitamins and minerals.
  • Eating eggs for breakfast may be the key to your weight loss.

Do Detox Diets and Cleanses Really Work?

GwynethPaltrow-detox-dietDetoxification (detox) diets are extremely popular among celebrities, natural food enthusiasts, and everyday dieters.

They claim to be able to eliminate harmful toxins while cleaning the blood in the body.

The problem is, this is a very vague claim and studies generally find no proof they are effective (1).

Also, there is a great variety of ingredients in detox products  and some can have negative side effects (2).

This is a detailed review for detox diets to help explain the possible health effects these diets have on the body.

What Exactly Is Detox Diet

The short answer is, mostly fasting, water, and juice

They prescribe a short period of fasting followed by a period of a few days taking only  water, fruit juices, vegetables and fruit.

Most detox diets are short-term dietary interventions intended to eliminate various toxins that can be found in the human body.

Depending on the diet, it might call for enemas, colon cleanses, supplements, teas and herbs.

WHY would you need a detox diet


More than ever, we are exposed to toxic chemicals through our diets and the environment.  Detox therapies are used frequently to combat the effects of environmental pollution.

Some of these toxins are heavy metals, synthetic chemicals, pollutants and other dangerous compounds.

A strict detox diet (as opposed to a basic cleanse) plan is supposed to:

  • Improve circulation within the body.
  • Use fasting to give bodily organs a rest.
  • Provide the body with healthy nutrients.
  • Encourage the elimination of toxins through sweat, urine and feces.
  • Cause liver stimulation that helps to get rid of toxins.

There are many claims that detoxification diets can help to soothe different health issues, such as chronic fatigue, bloating, allergies, inflammation, autoimmune diseases, digestive issues and obesity (3).

The problem is that there is a lack of human research for detox diets, and the few studies that have been released don’t offer conclusive evidence (45).

Detox diets are used to rid the body of toxins, and they can be viewed as short-term tools. According to various claims, they can help soothe a wide range of health issues.

Most Common Detox Strategies

no sugar alcohol cigarettesBesides the basics of fasting and a lot of juice, there are some different strategies, but
almost all detox diets have one or more of the following in common (6):

  • Regular exercise.
  • Drinking tea, water, smoothies, vegetable juices and fresh fruit.
  • Fasting for a period of one to three days.
  • The use of enemas, colon cleanses or laxatives.
  • Consuming herbs or supplements.
  • The elimination of foods that contain large amounts of allergens, contaminants and heavy metals.
  • The total elimination of refined sugar, cigarettes, coffee and alcohol.
  • Avoidance of allergenic foods and gradual reintroduction of these foods.
  • Drinking only lemon juice, salted water or other specific liquids.

The duration and intensity of various detox diets can vary wildly.

There are countless detox diets to choose from, and some of them involve eating certain foods, avoiding dangerous ingredients, taking supplements and fasting.

Do Detox Diets help remove Toxins?


The reality is that the human body is quite capable of ridding itself of toxins. The body eliminates toxins through sweat, urine and feces(7,4).

Our bodies remove most toxins without help

The liver is the organ that takes the harm out of substances and releases them from the body (8, 9).

However, the body does have difficulty removing some chemicals, such as heavy metals, BPA, phthalates and organic pollutants. These compounds can accumulate in the blood or fat tissue, and the body can take years to remove them (10, 11).

The good news is that most modern products don’t contain these harmful compounds (12).

There is plenty of anecdotal evidence of individuals who’ve reported feeling more energetic and focused after undergoing a detoxification diet.

However, these feelings could be attributed to the removal of alcohol, processed foods and other harmful compounds.

NO Evidence they help remove toxins

There is no real research that proves the effectiveness of detox diets for helping to remove toxins in humans.

There have been various animal studies that seem to show coriander, pectin and fruit acids can eliminate organic pollutants and toxic metals (13).


Detox Diet plans may use some scary images like the one at right showing “toxins” taking over your body, but for the most part, there isn’t any evidence that our bodies ARE filled with toxins and need to be cleansed.

Most detox diets don’t disclose specific toxins that they’re able to remove, and there isn’t much evidence that shows they’re capable of eliminating toxins. The human body is very efficient at using sweat, urine and feces to remove toxins all by itself

Weight Loss and Detox Diets

green smoothie detoxIt is believed that the weight loss experienced from detox diets can mostly be attributed to a loss of carb stores and fluids.

There are few scientific studies that show detox diets help with weight loss, and no known randomized trials comparing detox diets vs other diets with the same caloric restrictions. (14).

One of the most popular recently is the “lemon detox diet,” which studied overweight Korean women.

The women consumed mostly organic maple or palm syrups and lemon juice for 7 days.

They showed significant reduction in  body weight, waist size, body fat, body mass index, body fat percentage and waist to hip ratio  (15).

They also showed beneficial effect on reducing the key fat hormone leptin and lowering  insulin resistance .

If a detox diet involves severe calorie restriction, then it will most certainly cause weight loss and improvements in metabolic health, the same as any other diet.

However, this type of “crash” dieting probably won’t lead to long-term results unless you change your lifestyle at the same time.

There are no known studies showing increased weight loss from detox diets. Some studies show detox diets can deliver a short-term reduction in body weight due to the severe calorie restrictions

Stress, Short-Term Fasting and Detox Diets

Some detox diets could have effects that are similar to what intermittent fasting can provide. Short-term fasting might improve disease markers and improve insulin and leptin sensitivity (16, 17).

These effects don’t work for everyone. The problem with crash diets is that they can be stressful (18, 19).

There are detox diets that can deliver effects that are similar to intermittent fasting regimes and can improve health biomarkers.

The Benefits of Detox Diets

Some aspects of detox diets have been shown to be beneficial (20).

Some of these are:

• Getter better sleep and limiting stress.
• Drinking more green tea and water.
• Sweating and getting regular exercise.
• Avoiding organic pollutants and heavy metals.
• Eating whole foods.
• Avoiding foods that have been excessively processed.

Many of the aspects of detoxification diets have been linked to better health. A few of these aspects are relaxing, reducing stress, drinking more water and exercising.

Side Effects and Diet Safety

Before starting any type of detox diet, the potential side effects need to be considered.

Calorie Restriction

Many detox diets recommend severe calorie restriction, which can cause bad breath, irritability and fatigue. Some potential side effects of long-term fasting are electrolyte imbalance, mineral deficiencies and death (21).

Colon cleansing strategies can cause nausea, bloating, vomiting, cramping and dehydration (22).


Believe it or not, some detox diets can actually lead to overdosing on water, diuretics, laxatives or supplements.

The detox industry isn’t moderated very well, so some products don’t match what’s on the labels (23).

When to Avoid Detoxification Diets

Certain people should avoid detox diets. Some examples are individuals who’re pregnant or malnourished, and children, elderly individuals and adolescents.

Detox dieting should also be avoided by people who have medical conditions or blood sugar issues.

Detox diets can cause severe restriction of nutrient and energy intake. Some detox plans can include harmful supplements and approaches, and some people should avoid all types of detox diets.

Final Thought: Don’t Fill Your Body with Junk

Except for extreme circumstances your body doesn’t need any help removing toxins you encounter from the environment.

If you have been overindulging in alcohol, cigarettes, and other unhealthy habits, the cleansing and fasting phases of a Detox Diet can be beneficial to give your liver and other organs a break and help you get back on track.

If you are mainly interested in weight loss, a Low Carb High protein, or Ketogenic Diet is much more effective and better for long term health.