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Targeting NAD+ in Metabolic Disease

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) was discovered more than 100 years ago by Sir Arthur Harden as a low-molecular-weight substance present in boiled yeast extracts [1]. In the late 1920s, Joseph Goldberger fed Brewer’s yeast to dogs with pellagra, a devastating disease characterized by dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and death, and their health improved. At that time, […]

NAD catabolism, GTP and mitochondrial dynamics

Mitochondrial NUDIX hydrolases: A metabolic link between NAD catabolism, GTP and mitochondrial dynamics 2. Pathology of NAD+ catabolism and downstream metabolic products NAD+ is an important cofactor involved in multiple metabolic reactions that have a central role in cellular metabolism and energy production (Belenky et al., 2007; Frederick et al., 2016; Mouchiroud et al., 2013). […]

Mitochondrial transplantation: From animal models to clinical use in humans

1. Introduction The importance of the mitochondrion in the maintenance and preservation of cellular homeostasis and function is well established and there is a sufficient body of evidence to show that mitochondrial injury or loss of function is deleterious (Durhuus et al., 2015). The mechanisms leading to mitochondrial dysfunction are varied and include genetic changes […]

NMNAT: It’s an NAD+ synthase, chaperone, AND neuroprotector

Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferases (NMNATs) are a family of highly conserved proteins indispensable for cellular homeostasis. NMNATs are classically known for their enzymatic function of catalyzing NAD+ synthesis, but also have gained a reputation as essential neuronal maintenance factors. NMNAT deficiency has been associated with various human diseases with pronounced consequences on neural tissues, underscoring […]

Nicotinamide mononucleotide inhibits JNK activation to reverse Alzheimer disease.

Study published here Highlights   NMN improved behavioral measures of cognitive impairments in AD-Tg mice.   NMN decreased β-amyloid production, amyloid plaque burden, synaptic loss, and inflammatory responses in AD-Tg mice.   NMN reduced JNK activation in AD-Tg mice.   NMN regulated the expression of APP cleavage secretase in AD-Tg mice. Abstract Amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers […]

Mitochondrial dysfunction and the inflammatory response

The .pdf version of this research can be found at 1. Introduction Inflammation, a basic biological response against invading pathogens, contributes to repairing damage and preventing further tissue or cell injury (Medzhitov, 2008). However, when the inflammatory response cannot be appropriately attenuated, multi-organ failure or chronic inflammation can develop (Medzhitov, 2008). In this sense, increasing […]